Chemicals—Foodborne Pathogens

Foodborne Pathogens

Pathogen Sources Incubation Symptoms
Anisakis spp. Saltwater fish Several days Sore throat, diarrhea, abdominal pain
Bacillus cereus Soil, dust, grains, cereal, pudding, sauces 1-5 hours Nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting
Campylobacter jejuni Raw or undercooked chicken, unpasteurized milk 1-7 days Acute infectious diarrhea, urinary tract infection, fever, nausea, headache, arthritis
Clostridium botulinum Soil, contaminated water, fruits, honey, sewage, dust 12-36 hours High fever, dizziness, difficulty breathing, dry mouth, paralysis, loss of reflex
Clostridium perfringens Soil, vegetables grown in soil, dust, stews, human feces 8-12 hours Sharp abdominal cramps, diarrhea, dehydration
Diphyllobothrium latum Freshwater fish 3-6 weeks Hard to detect, sometimes anemia
Escherichia coli Ground beef, contaminated feces, lettuce, fruit juice, 11 hours Abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, chills, blood in feces, nausea, dehydration, death
Listeria monocytogenes Widespread in nature, coleslaw, cheese, meat products 4-21 days Mild, flulike headache; vomiting, meningitis, fever, headache, death
Norwalk virus Fish, shellfish from contaminated water; infected people 24-48 hours Fever, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting
Salmonella Meat, dairy products, seafood, raw salads, chocolate 12-48 hours Abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, chills, vomiting, dehydration, kidney failure, death
Shigella spp. Infected feces, direct contact with people, moist foods 4 days or less Abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, chills, headache, blood in feces, dehydration
Staphylococcus aureus Direct contact with people, poultry, high-protein foods 2-4 hours Vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, nausea, dehydration, sweating, weakness
Trichinella spiralis Infected pigs, flesh of bear and walrus 9 days Invades muscles and makes them sore and swollen, weakness
Vibrio parahaemolyticus Seawater, raw seafood, salty foods, cucumber 10-20 hours Abdominal cramps, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, chills, mild fever, headache, death
Infectious hepatitis Blood, contaminated feces, water, frozen strawberries 30 days Fever, nausea, abdominal pain, jaundice, tired feeling, liver infection
Yersinia enterocolitica Contaminated raw pork, beef; drinking water, ice cream 3-7 days Digestive upset, serious abdominal problems, fever, arthritis, skin/eye infections