Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Principles

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Principles

Seven HACCP Principles    Applicability Dates
E. Coli Testing Requirements
Minimum Testing Frequencies    Regulatory Performance Criteria

9 CFR Part 304, 308, 310, 320, 327, 381, 416, and 417 (Docket No. 93-016F)

HACCP is a science-based process control system for food safety designed to reduce the occurrence and numbers of pathogenic microorganisms on meat and poultry products. These new regulations were proposed by the Food Safety and Inspection Services (FSIS) of the Department of Agriculture and are mandatory for meat and poultry slaughter and processing establishments.

Seven HACCP Principles

  1. Perform a hazard analysis to identify and list the food safety
  2. hazards reasonably likely to occur in the production process and the preventive measures necessary to control the hazards.
  3. The critical control points (CCPs) of each process must be identified. A CCP is a point or procedure at which control can be applied and a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced.
  4. The critical limits for preventive measures associated with each CCP must be established. A critical limit is the maximum or minimum value that must be controlled at a CCP.
  5. The monitoring requirements for CCPs must be established. Monitoring consists of observations or measurements taken to assess whether a CCP is within the established critical limit.
  6. HACCP plan must include corrective action when monitoring
  7. indicates a deviation from a critical limit. Actions must dispose the noncompliant product and correct the cause of the deviation.
  8. Develop and maintain effective record keeping procedures. Consistent, reliable records should be generated during the
  9. operation of the plan and must be available for review.
  10. HACCP systems must be verified periodically to see if the systems are in compliance with the HACCP plan and if the plan needs modification and revalidation to achieve the food safety objective.

Applicability Dates

—The HACCP regulations set forth in 9 CFR part 417 and in 9 CFR 304, 327, and 381 parts will be applicable as follows:
   a. In large establishments, defined as establishments with 500 or more employees, on January 26, 1998.
   b. In smaller establishments, defined as establishments with 10 or more employees but fewer than 500, on January 25, 1999.
   c. In very small establishments, defined as establishments with fewer than 10 employees or annual sales of less than $2.5 million, on January 25, 2000.

—The Sanitation Standard Operation Procedure (SSOP) regulations set forth in 9 CFR 416 were applicable on January 27, 1997.

—The E. coli process control testing regulations set forth in 9 CFR 310.25 (a) and 381.94 (a) were applicable on January 27, 1997.

—The Salmonella pathogen reduction performance standards regulations set forth in 9 CFR 310.25 (b) and 9 CFR 381.94 (b) are applicable simultaneously with applicability dates for implementation of HACCP.

E. Coli Testing Requirements

—All federally inspected meat and poultry slaughter plants must test carcasses for generic E. coli to verify their processes are under control for preventing and removing fecal contamination.

Minimum Testing Frequencies
Class Frequency
Steers/heifers 1 test/300 carcasses
Hogs 1 test/1000 carcasses
Chickens 1 test/22,000 carcasses
Turkeys 1 test/3000 carcasses

Regulatory Performance Criteria
Class Lower limit of marginal range Upper limit of marginal range No. of samples Max no. allowed in marginal range
Steers/heifers Negative* 100 cfu/cm 13 3
Cows/bulls Negative* 100 cfu/cm 13 3
Market hogs 10 cfu/cm2 10,000 cfu/cm2 13 3
Broilers 100 cfu/mL2 1000 cfu/mL 13 3