The removal of ions and minerals by synthetic ion exchange resins. Cation resins remove positively charged ions; anion resins remove negatively charged ions.
Activated carbon bonds with the chlorine and organic materials in feedwater to immobilize and remove these impurities.
Use as a pretreatment or a stand-alone treatment. Water passes through a filter of specified porosity at normal line pressures. The filter retains most particulates, with water passing through.
Use for removing pyrogens and bacteria. Under pressure, water is forced through a membrane with a pore size smaller than 0.005 µm. Particulates are retained, with only pure water passing through.
Use primarily as a pretreatment. Equal amounts of pure water and saline solution are separated in a U-tube by a semipermeable membrane. When external pressure is applied to the saline side, the semipermeable membrane allows water to pass through while salts are concentrated and flushed down a drain.
The process in which water is heated to a gaseous state and recondensed in a separate vessel.
Ultraviolet (UV) Oxidation
UV light (at <280 nm) passes through the water destroying bacteria, viruses, and trace organics.